Concept of Computer Software

The concept of computer software is a set of instructions, Commands, data, or programming code that helps computer hardware properly work ( to operate computers and execute specific tasks). The software could also be a generic term used to ask applications, scripts, and programs that run on a tool. The code is often machine-level code or code written for an OS. In other words, computer software instructs the computer on how to do the entire system. Software components communicate the hardware components with the help of a command sequence. This is the main concept of computer software.

Figure 1: Computer-software

Defination of Software

The concept of computer software is a generic term for an organized collection of computer data, instruction, and a set of commands. Computer softer developed using different programs (Java, Python, c,  and c++, etc.)  for controlling, integrating, and managing the hardware components to performing specific tasks.

Main 7 Types of Software Categories

Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions, commands to perform a specific task are problems.

Figure 2: Software-Categories

System Software

System software is software that helps the computer and another android device for performing every action of the device, this is the main concept of computer software. It aids the user and the hardware to function and interact with each other. It manages to compute hardware behaviors to provide basic functionalities required by the user. It is an operating system. Which provides an interface (communication bridge, intermediate or middle layer) between user and hardware.

Figure 3: concept-of-computer-software

System software runs in the background of the but is not used by the end-user It also provides a platform for other software and includes the programs managing the pc itself, it is a computer’s OS, file management utilities, and disk OS. In the system, files contain system preferences, functions of libraries, drivers and other system services, hardware, and other configuration files. The programs in system software encompass compilers, assemblers, interpreters, file management tools, debuggers, and system utilities.

[Note: A collection of instructions that tells the computer how to perform a particular task. It is usually stored in user-accessible memory and it can very big while the firmware is very small.]

Example of system software:

  • Microsoft Windows
  • macOS
  • GNU/Linux
  • Smartphones System Softwires:
  • Apple’s iOS
  • Google’s Android
  • Windows Phone OS

Operating System

An operating system is the system software, which is called the soul of a computer like a human and controls all of the computer activity  (hardware, software resources, and all peripherals) for computer programs. It provides a bridge between users and computer hardware and enables them to work together. An operating system runs other software, These are given below.

Example of the operating system:

  • Microsoft Windows Blog
  • Mac OS X Daily
  • Google
  • Planet Ubuntu
  • Linux Techni
  • Windows Central
  • Linux Today
  • Ubuntu Insights
  • The Windows Club
  • The Linux Foundation
  • Linux Journal
  • AppCoda Community
  • Linux Magazine
  • KaiOS
  • Ubuntu Made Simple
  • Mongoose OS

Device Drivers

A device driver is a software that controls a particular hardware device it is easily essentially attached to the computer system. Many hardware devices require device drivers to connect to the system easily. It does this by collects input from the operating system and giving instructions to the hardware to perform any task of the computer system. Hard drive and processor each require their driver.

Mainly we use windows and other operating systems and manage drivers behind the scenes.

Examples of device drivers:

  • BIOS Drivers
  • Motherboard Drivers
  • Display Drivers
  • Printer Drivers
  • USB Drivers
  • Sound Card Drivers
  • VGA Drivers (Video Graphics Array)
  • Graphic cards
  • Network cards
  • Mouse and keyboard
  • Benefits of Driver Software


Firmware is a set of instructions or programs written in machine language which are used to operate any electronic components or computer hardware. It is one type of inbuild software that’s stored on a computer’s motherboard or chipset.

It is embedded permanent software in the ROM memory. Which is permanently stored in the hardware.

It is stored in Hardware.

It cannot be or hardly changed after production.

It is the heart of the device.

It operates on hardware.

[Note: BIOS is only operating for referring to the start-up firmware of the motherboard itself.]

Example of firmware software:

  • Computer peripherals
  •  BIOS
  • liming and control mechanism of the washing machine
  • TV program, and Remo tic

Programming Language Translators

A programming language is just like we use Nepali, Dotelly, Hindi, and English to communicate with each other, we use a programming language like C, C++, Python, Java, etc. to communicate with the computer. Programming is a way to instruct the computer to perform various tasks.

 It has a set of commands, instructions, and other syntax use to create a software program. Programmers use to write code in high-level languages and this code can be compiled into a low-level language (Computer understandable format).

Programming language translator is a mediator program that is used as a relay to translate high-level language code to simpler machine-level code. It’s possible to write computer languages like Java or PHP in plain-text editor apps, industry-standard applications are available.

Examples of programming language translators:

  • Assemblers
  • Debuggers
  • Compilers
  • Interpreters


It is software, converts high-level programming into machine code. Then your compiled program will be executable by the processor. When the compiler converts a high-level program into assembly code, and we need a translator to translate the program and convert it into machine code.

It is a compiles source code ( high-level language (e.g., C++) ) into a set of machine-language (Destination Code). It is a very large program, it checks errors and other abilities. Compiler executes code all at a time.


It executes directly a program written in some programming language. Java interpreter is one of the famous interpreters. It executes code line by line.


It a software that converts a program written in assembly language into machine code. Some disassemblers do the reverse operation. The Micro-assembler is the program that translates the Microprogram. This also gives the concept of computer software.

Utility Software

Utility Software is system software that adds functionality to your computer and, helps to maintain the proper, smooth, and better performing functioning of a Computer System. Utility software is software that performs a certain task like organize, maintain, manage, and optimize the functioning of the computer system. This includes backup, disk repair, file management, security, and networking programs.

Some utility programs help keep your computer free from unwanted software such as viruses, malware, and spyware helps us to customize our desktop and user interface.

Examples of utility software:

  • Antivirus
  • Disk Management Tool
  • Compression Tool
  • Disk Cleanup Tool
  • Backup
  • File Management Tool


Antivirus is one type of utility software program that helps us to secure our computer, or that helps the operating system in providing a virus (A virus is a malicious software program that destroys and corrupts the computer.) free environment to all users.

Example of antivirus:

  • Comodo Antivirus
  • AVAST Antivirus
  • AVG Antivirus
  • Avira Antivirus
  • Bitdefender Antivirus
  • Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE)
  • Ad-Aware Antivirus
  • Amiti Antivirus
  • Panda Protection
  • Baidu Antivirus

Disk Management Tool

They are also one type of utility software, that is used to manage data on disks. They are almost available in Microsoft Windows, they perform functions like partitioning devices, manage drives, etc. These tools are used to manage different drivers in the computer such as optical disk drive, flash drive, and hard disk drive. Those tools enable users to manage the patriations associated with this drive.

Examples of Disk management tools:

  • Disk Cleanup Tools
  • Disk Compression Tools
  • Disk Checkers
  • Disk Formatters
  • Disk Partitioning Tools
  • Disk Space Analyzers
  • Disk Defragmenter
  • Backup Software

Compression Tools

It is also one type of Utility software. Storage is a big problem in a computer, we are trying to best reduce the file. An important part of a computer is space for storing, it’s vital to take care of this storage. Some utility software compresses big files and reduces their size. The format of the files changes while compressing and that we cannot access or edit them directly. additionally, we will easily decompress the file and obtain the first file back.

Examples of compression tools:

  • WinRAR
  • WinZip
  • ALZip
  • 7-Zip
  • Zip Archiver
  • MacRAR
  • MacZip
  • Stuffit

Disk Cleanup Tool

This is also one type of utility software used to delete the files in the computer that are not necessary to the user. These are mainly used to delete the unused files, delete offline webpages,   and temporary internet files, or helps to free up the disk space.

 Examples of disk cleanup tools:

  • CCleaner
  • Avast Cleanup
  • CleanMyPC
  • Treesize
  • Glary Utilities Pro
  • WinZip System Utilities Suite

Backup Utility

This is also one type of utility software that helps to create a copy of files, databases, and folders. That saves data and information when we lose data accidentally. back up the files, folders, databases, or complete disks. Moreover, backup refers to duplicating the disk information so that the data can be restored if any data loss happens.

Example of backup utility:

  • Norton Ghost
  • Symantec Backup Exec
  • Acronis True Image
  • TotalRecovery Pro.

File Management Tools

File Management System is also one type of utility software that is used to manage files of the computer system. All data and information are stored in the file in the computer system. All stored files manage File Management Tools in “File Management System” in a computer. Thus the file management tools are a main important portion of the operating system. These tools are used to open, rename, group, or delete a file Therefore, this utility software help to browse, search, arrange, find information, and quickly preview the files of the system.

Examples of file management tools:

  • Google Desktop
  •  Double Commander
  • Examples of file management tools:
  • Google Desktop
  •  Double Commander
  •  Directory Opus
  • pCloud
  • HubSpot
  • Alfresco
  • LogicalDOC
  • Feng Office
  • Nuxeo
  • KnowledgeTree

Disk Defragmenter

This is also one type of utility software that helps to scale back the fragmentation and hence, reduces the access speed. It contains rearranging files and storing them in contiguous memory locations. Moreover, when we defragment disk that saves time in reading from files and writing files to disk.

Examples of disk defragmenters:

  • MyDefrag
  • PerfectDisk
  • Defraggler
  • Diskeeper

Application Software

Application software is mostly used by the general user. This software is mainly developed for business purposes other specific member, graphics, and multimedia projects, facilitate communication, entertainments industry, education, home, etc. Its software is a software program or group of programs only developed for end-users.

The computer system has no specific use without application software. This may be consist of a single program, collection of programs often called software package and works together to accomplish a task such as a spreadsheet package, application software may include a larger collection of related but independent packages and programs.

Software TypeExample of Application Software
Software for Engineering and productIDE or Integrated Development Environments
Content Access SoftwareAccessing content through media players, web browsers
Application SuitesOpenOffice, Microsoft Office
Simulation SoftwareFlight and scientific simulators
Educational SoftwareDictionaries: Encarta, BritannicaMathematical: MATLABOthers: Google Earth, NASA World Wind
Word processing softwareMS Word, WordPad, and Notepad
Database softwareOracle, MS Access, etc
Enterprise SoftwareCustomer relationship management system
Information Worker SoftwareDocumentation tools, resource management tools
Presentation SoftwareReal Player, Media Player
Multimedia softwareReal Player, Media Player
Spreadsheet softwareApple Numbers, Microsoft Excel
Table 1: Example of Application Software

Packaged Software

Packaged software is the type of software, These may be a collection of programs that perform similar functions or have similar features.  Microsoft Office includes different packaged software like Excel, Word, and PowerPoint. In the packaged software Microsoft office allow video and audio editing software can also be available as packaged software, used for editing music and video files utilized in a movie. Packaged software is paid and freely available software.

Some of the commonly used application software are:

  • Word processors
  • Graphics software
  • Database software
  • Spreadsheet software
  • Presentation software
  • Web browsers
  • Enterprise software
  • Information worker software
  • Multimedia software
  • Education and reference software
  • Content access software

Presentation software

Presentation software is a packaged software under the application software may be a sort of play software that permits you to represent your debates and concepts with ease and clarity by using visual information. It is a software program that helps users show the information in the form of slides. It allows you to display the knowledge within the sort of slides.  We will add textbooks, images, graphs, and videos.

Example of Presentation Software:

  • Fit plates
  • Textbook
  • Videotape
  • Multimedia files

Multimedia software

Multimedia operation software is a packaged software under the application software, it allows you to do or record images, and do audio or tape lines. This is the combination of text, graphs, audio, and multimedia software utilized in the editing of the video, audio, and text.  This software is considerably utilized in lustiness, figures, image, and tape editing. Popular illustrations are the VLC media player and Windows media player.

Example of multimedia Software :

  • Multimedia Software (Audio-Video)
  • Media player, Winamp
  • QuickTime, VLC, GOM, ATI TV
  • Video editing – software, list
  • Pinnacle Studio
  • Ulead MediaStudio

Web cyber Surfs

Web cyber surf is a packaged software under the application software, They are usage software wont to browse the online for locating and regaining data across the web. Some web cyber surf is Google Chrome and Internet Explorer.

  • Examples of cyber surf:
  • include Firefox
  • MS Edge
  • Safari

Educational Software

Education and reference software is a packaged software under the application software, it is also named academic software, is specifically designed for a personal educational organization. a number of these are JumpStart, MindPlay, Moodle, and Kid Pix.

Graphics Software

Graphics usage software is a packaged software under the application software, it allows you to edit or make changes in visual data or images. These are used for creating, editing, viewing, storing, reviewing, and printing designs, drawing, pictures, graphs. It comprises illustration and movie editor software. Adobe Photoshop and Paint Shop Pro are numberless representatives of plates software.

Spreadsheet Software

Spreadsheet Software is a packaged software under the application software, its usage software is employed to perform maths. It is a data analysis tool, that allows you to create a kind of computerized ledger. During this software, data is stored in a table format. The cutting area, called cells, are separated to define fields ditto as primer, date, time, and number. It allows the fiends to offer formulas and functions to perform mathematics. Microsoft Excel and Google Lengths are instances of spreadsheet software.

Database Software

Database software is packaged software under the application software, it is employed to effect and manage a database. Also referred to as a DBMS (Database Management System), it helps you organize your data. So, once you run an operation, data is cost from the database, modified, and is stored back within the database. Those types of software are mainly used to storing data in a particular database, Some databases are Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft SQL Waiter, PostgreSQL, MongoDB, and IBM Db2 are a number the favored databases.

Word Processing Software

Word processing software is a packaged software under the application software, it is employed to format and manipulate the handbook, so, creating memos, letters, faxes, and documents. Data processing software is additionally wont to format and adorn the handbook. It provides you with an entire lot of features, including dictionaries, copies, and antipodes. alongside Word Art features, the cradle option allows you to change cradle color, effect, and elegance as per your choice. ABC and spell check options also are available to see for breaches. Leading cases include G Doc and Microsoft Word Doc.

Simulation Software

Simulation software is a packaged software under the application software, it is employed within the fields of military engineering, practical education in certain diligence, means testing, man-made training, tape games, etc. It’s used where work on the factual system or physical environs is often perilous. it is one type of software that allows you to study or observe an operation, or portent through simulation without actually doing that operation. The neat instances of simulation are within the field of robotics, flight systems, and rain prediction, etc. Expanded Reality and computer game technologies also are wont to develop operation software that supports simulations.

Web-based Software

Web-based software is the software you employ over the web with an internet browser. No installation process, only download any software or worry about upgrades. If you work in a web bank or web-based email programs like Gmail, Hotmail, or Yahoo Mail, you’re already using web-based software. It is a collective term for a wide range of applications and programs that are active on a web server and accessible via a web browser.

Example of web software:

  • Gmail
  •  Yahoo
  • America Online

Advantage of web-based software

1. Cost

Developing a  is way web-based software on a low budget rather than other types of software. It is time-consuming. No test costing of web application in every OS.

2. Updates

Like other types of software, a web app doesn’t need to be updated. These web applications are linked to a website directly gets updated to the most recent version. These applications, developers make securely. So everyone who access the web app easily.

3. Customization

Developers make it easy to customize web applications. Thus, it is easy to change the interface of web applications. Result of work done precisely with fewer efforts.

4. Download Requirement

For running a web application, you don’t need downloading. The user can directly interact with the web applications. Thus, App Store and Play Store are not available.

5. Platform Support

 It supports any operating system. Their interface with different screen sizes (Platform responsible)  allows them to reach out to various platforms. Hence, these applications run on Windows, IOS, macOS, Android, and other operating systems.

Dis-advantage of web-based software

1. Performance

A web applications software is directly linked to a web browser. Due to this, the app size tends to get increased. Web applications make slower to the internet and large web app perform considerably slower than the native desktop app.

2. Security

The quality control system is not available in these web applications. As a result, both safety and security are reduced. However, by the methods such as SSL. Some web applications are not secured thus some hackers send the virus to web pages.

3. Availability

They are not available App Store or Play Store. Web applications are difficult to make an awareness among audiences that such apps are available.

4. Web Issues

The web applications are fully dependent on the website. If the website happens to undergo failure, then most likely the application will be failing too.

5. Internet Dependence

Without the internet web, applications are not run thus, internet connection is compulsory when running a web application. Still, there are many parts of the world where the internet is not accessible. Without a reliable internet connection, you can’t access any browses.

Tailored Software

It is one type of software program, also called custom software, tailored software, and specialized software. Tailored software is software that’s made for businesses and individuals that perform tasks specific requirements of an organization or individual. It is written on the demand of individual needs and serves only one user or organization.

 Examples of tailored software:

  • Medi-Pro Software
  • Billing Software
  • System Information
  • SEE the result
  • Tally  Accounting Software

Open Source Software

Open-source software is computer software that’s released under a license during which the copyright holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software and its ASCII text file to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software could also be developed in a collaborative public manner.

Example of open source software:

  • Apache webserver
  • GNU Computer collection
  • Moodle
  • Mozilla Firefox
  • Thunderbird

Features of open source software

  • Free cost software
  • Easily available on the internet for download
  • No license required to run OSS
  • A single free license is applied to all other users
  • No restriction on OSS for use
  • Source code of OSS can easily be available No discrimination against a person of software programmers or groups

Freeware Software

Freeware is available without any cost software or free software. We are also called open-source software but there’s a difference.

It does not expose or share its source code. Any user can download this software without paying any fee from the internet

Some software development companies only allow their freeware for private or personal use.  It does not provide any liberty for modifying the software and charging a fee for its distribution.

Examples of freeware software:

  •  Adobe Reader
  • Skype
  • Team Viewer
  • Yahoo Messenger

Shareware Software

Shareware is software that is freely distributed to the user on a trial basis, but only for a short time, when the time limit expires, then the user is asked to pay for continued services. Thus you can try some or all of the features before committing to a purchase.

Examples of shareware software:

  • Adobe Acrobat
  • PHP Debugger
  • WinZip
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